This lecture covers free practice CPA questions on the FAR section coverings standard setting for financial accounting such as SEC, AICPA, FASB.
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Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
External financial reporting and auditing developed in tandem with the growth of the industrial economy and its capital markets. However, when the stock market crashed in 1929 and the nation’s economy plunged into the Great Depression, there were calls for increased government regulation of business, especially financial institutions and the stock market.
As a result of these events, the federal government established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to help develop and standardize financial information presented to stockholders. The SEC is a federal agency. It administers the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and several other acts. Most companies that issue securities to the public or are listed on a stock exchange are required to file audited financial statements with the SEC. In addition, the SEC has broad powers to prescribe, in whatever detail it desires, the accounting practices and standards to be employed by companies that fall within its jurisdiction. The SEC currently exercises oversight over 12,000 companies that are listed on the major exchanges (e.g., the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq).
At the time the SEC was created, no group—public or private—issued accounting standards. The SEC encouraged the creation of a private standard-setting body because it believed that the private sector had the appropriate resources and talent to achieve this daunting task. As a result, accounting standards have developed in the private sector either through the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) or the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), which is the national professional organization of practicing Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), has been an important contributor to the development of GAAP. Various committees and boards established since the founding of the AICPA have contributed to this effort.
Committee on Accounting Procedure
At the urging of the SEC, the AICPA appointed the Committee on Accounting Procedure in 1939. The Committee on Accounting Procedure (CAP) composed of practicing CPAs, issued 51 Accounting Research Bulletins during the years 1939 to 1959. These bulletins dealt with a variety of accounting problems. But this problem-by-problem approach failed to provide the needed structured body of accounting principles. In response, in 1959 the AICPA created the Accounting Principles Board.
Accounting Principles Board
The major purposes of the Accounting Principles Board (APB) were to (1) advance the written expression of accounting principles, (2) determine appropriate practices, and (3) narrow the areas of difference and inconsistency in practice. To achieve these objectives, the APB’s mission was twofold: to develop an overall conceptual framework to assist in the resolution of problems as they become evident and to substantively research individual issues before the AICPA issued pronouncements. The Board’s 18 to 21 members, selected primarily from public accounting, also included representatives from industry and academia. The Board’s official pronouncements, called APB Opinions, were intended to be based mainly on research studies and be supported by reason and analysis. Between its inception in 1959 and its dissolution in 1973, the APB issued 31 opinions.
Unfortunately, the APB came under fire early, charged with lack of productivity and failing to act promptly to correct alleged accounting abuses. Later, the APB tackled numerous thorny accounting issues, only to meet a buzz saw of opposition from industry and CPA firms. It also ran into occasional governmental interference. In 1971, the accounting profession’s leaders, anxious to avoid governmental rule-making, appointed a Study Group on Establishment of Accounting Principles. Commonly known as the Wheat Committee for its chair Francis Wheat, this group examined the organization and operation of the APB and determined the necessary changes to attain better results. The Study Group submitted its recommendations to the AICPA Council in the spring of 1972, which led to the replacement of the APB with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in 1973.
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
The Wheat Committee’s recommendations resulted in the creation of a new standard-setting structure composed of three organizations—the Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF), the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), and the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council (FASAC). The Financial Accounting Foundation selects the members of the FASB and the Advisory Council, funds their activities, and generally oversees the FASB’s activities.
The major operating organization in this three-part structure is the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Its mission is to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting for the guidance and education of the public, which includes issuers, auditors, and users of financial information. The expectations of success and support for the new FASB relied on several significant differences between it and its predecessor, the APB:
- 1.Smaller membership. The FASB consists of seven members, replacing the relatively large 18-member APB.
- 2.Full-time, remunerated membership. FASB members are well-paid, full-time members appointed for renewable 5-year terms. The APB members volunteered their part-time work.
- 3.Greater autonomy. The APB was a senior committee of the AICPA. The FASB is not part of any single professional organization. It is appointed by and answerable only to the Financial Accounting Foundation.
- 4.Increased independence. APB members retained their private positions with firms, companies, or institutions. FASB members must sever all such ties.
- 5.Broader representation. All APB members were required to be CPAs and members of the AICPA. Currently, it is not necessary to be a CPA to be a member of the FASB.
The SEC has affirmed its support for the FASB by indicating that financial statements conforming to standards set by the FASB are presumed to have substantial authoritative support. In short, the SEC requires registrants to adhere to GAAP. In addition, the SEC indicated in its reports to Congress that “it continues to believe that the initiative for establishing and improving accounting standards should remain in the private sector, subject to Commission oversight.”
The SEC’s partnership with the private sector works well. The SEC acts with remarkable restraint in the area of developing accounting standards. Generally, the SEC relies on the FASB to develop accounting standards.
The SEC’s involvement in the development of accounting standards varies. In some cases, the SEC rejects a standard proposed by the private sector. In other cases, the SEC prods the private sector into taking quicker action on certain reporting problems, such as accounting for investments in debt and equity securities and the reporting of derivative instruments. In still other situations, the SEC communicates problems to the FASB, responds to FASB exposure drafts, and provides the FASB with counsel and advice upon request.
The SEC’s mandate is to establish accounting principles. The private sector, therefore, must listen carefully to the views of the SEC. In some sense, the private sector is the formulator and the implementor of the standards. However, when the private sector fails to address accounting problems as quickly as the SEC would like, the partnership between the SEC and the private sector can be strained.